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翟征远:如何在雅思写作TASK TWO中避免跑题(一)

来源:新航道      浏览:166      发布日期:2016-05-03 09:50

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  “用英语点亮人生”,济南新航道老师翟征远为大家提供如何在雅思写作TASK TWO中避免跑题(一),希望对大家有所帮助。济南新航道学校专注于济南雅思培训,提供口语培训、雅思一对一等专业培训帮助考生提高雅思成绩。

 

  雅思大作文审题向来是中国考生的弱点,甚至有考官曾表示90%的中国考生都存在审题的问题,但这一直都没能引起学生太多的重视。我希望通过我们两期的文章中所提到的一些审题注意事项对各位深受写作提分难之苦的“烤鸭”有所帮助。

  跑题主要分成两大类型,第一是偏离话题(off-topic),题目中要求讨论城乡差异,结果学生写成犯罪,这种情况不常见;第二是没有完成任务(off-task),即考生没有根据题目中的要求来回答。后面这种情况又分成两类:完全离题和部分离题。

 

  先来看一个完全离题的例子:

  (2013-10-26) Some people think a rise in standard of living in a country only seems to benefit cities more than rural areas. What problems may those differences cause? How to reduce this problem?

  原题要求考生写城乡收入差异大会造成什么后果和如何应对,可据考官透漏,将近三分之二的中国考生写成了原因加影响。究其原因,无非将原文中“cause”弄混了。同一情况今年再次出现:

  (2015-04-11) Nowadays, older people who need employment have to compete with younger people. What problems do this cause? And what are the solutions?

  这一问题其实不难解决,考生只要注意题干中cause即可,弄明白是名词还是动词,动词的话是谁导致了谁,一般也不会再出问题。

 

  部分离题的情况就比较复杂了,个人分为以下几种:

 

  1. 丢三落四型

  这种跑题的情况有可能是没有注意到原题干中的并列词(and,or),比如以下这几个题目:

  (2013-01-12) Children spend long time studying in school. What are the positive or negative effects on children and society they live in?

  (2015-01-29) Currently, some scientists or travelers like to travel to remote natural environment such as south pole. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

  (C9-T3) Some people say that the best way to improve public health is by increasing the number of sports facilities. Others, however, say that this would have little effect on public health and that other measures are required. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  前两个题目中均是学生不小心忽略掉题干中某个并列的名词(已用下划线标出);第三个来自于剑桥九第三篇,题干中并列的是两个句子,也就是说如果考生认同题干中后者的观点,则既要证明增加体育措施没什么效果,还要证明有其他更好的措施存在,两者缺一不可。

  当然,题干中也完全可以并列动词,题目请参考去年12月6号和4月26号两场考试的题目:

  (2014-12-06) Some people think “vertical city”, where people live and work in high buildings is the best. Others think “horizontal city” is better, where there are few tall buildings. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

  (2014-04-26) With the widespread of the Internet, many people choose to work and study at home instead of traveling to workplaces and colleges. Do you think the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?

  这种情况解决起来也很简单,考生只要审题时划出并列词and,or即可。

 

  2. 买椟还珠型

  这类跑题考生的问题就是摸不清原文的虚实,讨论了不该讨论的东西,忽略了重点。这一般出现在题干内容较长时,解题的关键在于两类逻辑关系的把握。先看这个题:

  (2014-10-25) Some people say job satisfaction is more important than job security. Others think people cannot always enjoy their jobs, so having a permanent job is more important. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

  在这里 “having a permanent job is more important”是重点,而 “people cannot always enjoy their jobs”则只是得出这一结论的原因。考生需要把握的是,当题干中出现因果关系词汇时,讨论的重点是结论,而非结原因,当然该原因也应该在正文部分用上。此类话题在雅思原题中多次出现,一下是几个简单的例子:

  (2012-06-09) Some people think news is in no connection with people’s lives; therefore, it is a complete waste of time to read the news in the newspaper or watch TV news. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  (2011-01-27) Some people think that it is necessary to travel abroad to learn about other countries, but other people think that it is not necessary to travel abroad because all the information can be seen at TV and the internet. Discuss both opinions and give your own opinion.

  除了因果关系,另一类易出错的关系则是转折关系。

  (2012-5-19) Food can be produced more cheaply today because of improved fertilizers and better machinery. However, some people think that the methods used to achieve this may have negative effects on human health and local communities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  一般来说,however后面的是我们讨论的重点,前面顶多算是一种背景。另外,考生也要防止把此类情况看成双方对立观点,各自论证,也是跑题。

 

  以上便是考生出现跑题现象比较集中的几类问题,希望各位考生把这里面涉及到的题目好好复习一下;当然,还有两类问题,敬请关注我们的网站,我们会在下期文章中再详细介绍!

 

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