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写作中常用的修辞格词汇汇总

2015-07-31 10:16
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  修辞格是汉语中大家再熟悉不过的语言修饰手段了,到了英语中可能有些同学连它们叫什么都说不出来了,下面给大家整理了写作中常用的修辞格词汇汇总,希望对大家有所帮助。

  Metonymy 转喻

  定义:Metonymy is a figure in which the triter or speaker changes on word for another to which it is in some way related.

  例句:Scepter and Crown (Kings and Emperors) must tumble down.

  Synecdoche 提喻

  定义:This figure, akin to Metonymy gives to an object a name expressing something more or less than we intended, as when the name of part is applied to the whole or that of the whole to a part.

  例句:He manages to earn his bread (the necessaries of life).

  Transferred Epithet 移位修辞

  定义:In this figure an epithet is transformed from a word to which it properly belongs to some other word closely connected with it.

  例句:He tosses from side to side on his sleepless bed.

  Oxymoron 矛盾

  定义:An Oxymoron is the association of two words or phrases having conflicting meanings, as in ‘starve with feeding’, a splendid and ghastly triumph of ostentatious simplicity’ of the cruel mercy of the murderers’

  例句:He is a busy idler.

  Antithesis 对照

  定义:Antithesis is the figure in which one word or idea is set against another with the object of heightening the effect of what is said. ‘A dark night makes a flash of lightning more vivid’. This explains the power of verbal antithesis.

  例句:Man propose, God disposes.

  Epigram 警句/讽刺短诗

  定义:An epigram is a brief saying in prose or verse, remarkable for brevity and point; it may involve a contradiction between the literal meaning of the words and the meaning intended. The Epigram is an apparent contradiction in language, which, by causing a temporary shock, meaning underneath.

  例句:Every man wishes to live long, but one wishes to be old.

  Pun 双关语

  定义:A Pun is a play upon words. It means the use of a word in such a way that it is capable of bearing two or more different meanings, the object being to create humor, admiration or surprise.

  例句:Life is like peeing into the snow in a dark winter night. You probably made a difference, but it's really hard to tell.

  Climax 层进

  定义:A Climax is figure in which the sense rises by successive steps to what is more and more important.

  例句:I came, I saw, I conquered.

  Anti-climax 突降

  定义:This is the converse of climax, for it means falling from a higher to a lower level of excitement.

  The fall is usually abrupt and the effect often either intentionally or unintentionally humorous.

  例句:I die, I faint, I fail.

  Paradox 悖论

  定义:A paradox is a statement which appears to contradict itself. Though seemingly absurd and contrary to received opinion, it is perhaps really well-founded.

  例句:There is no one so poor as a wealthy miser.

  Innuendo 暗讽

  定义:In this figure the author’s meaning is not plainly stated. It is merely suggested or implied or hinted at, the intention usually being depreciatory.

  例句:This author’s books will live at least a year.

  Sarcasm 讽刺

  定义:In this figure the attack is not veiled (hidden, concealed) in words as in Irony. The author says what he means, but in such a way as to imply ridicule, censure, disapproval or contempt.

  例句:God made him and therefore let him pass for a man.

  Euphemism 委婉语

  定义:Euphemism is a figure in which we speak of harsh and unpleasant things in a mild and pleasant manner.

  例句:He was gathered to his fathers. (He died)

  Interrogation 疑问

  定义:Interrogation is the figure of affirming or denying the opposite by means of an unanswered question as in ‘Who dares to contradict me?’ Here the presumption is that no one dares to do so.

  例句:If you poison us, shall we not die?

  Exclamation 感叹

  定义:This is common and very forcible figure of speech. It arrests attention at once. ‘It’s raining hard’ is a prosaic, literal statement: ‘How it rains!’ expresses the same thought, with an addition of startled surprise.

  Tautology 赘述

  定义:This figure consists in saying a thing over again in other words without adding clearness or force; useless repetition.

  例句:The modern college students of today. “Mother I am very well, i was never better.”

  Personification 拟人

  定义:Personification is a figure by which we attribute life and mind to inanimate things.

  例句:Death lays his icy hands on kings.

  Apostrophe 呼语

  定义:Apostrophe is a figure by which the poet addresses a person or a personified idea

  例句:O Liberty! What crimes have been wrought in thy name? Milton! Thou shouldst be living at this hour.

  以下中国学生比较熟悉的概念不提供定义和例句:

  Hyperbole 夸张

  Simile 明喻

  Metaphor 暗喻

  Parable 寓言

  Alliteration 头韵(开头押韵,常见例子是英文绕口令。)

  Play upon Words 文字游戏

  hyperbole夸张

  rhetorical repetition 修辞重复

  antithesis 对照

  zeugma 轭式修辞/一语双叙

  例句:He lost his computer and his temper.

  flashback 倒叙

  analogy 类比

  qualification定性描述

  understatement 低调陈述

  exaggeration 夸张

  anecdote 轶事

  citation 引用(标志是引号,所以在上下文很容易识别)

  apply to emotion 抒情

  foreshadowing 伏笔

  figurative language 象征性语言

  comparison & contrast

  irony 讽刺

  rebuttal反驳/举反例

  parody 滑稽体裁/滑稽的模仿(床前明月光,吃饭多喝汤!)

  digression 离题/岔开

  hypothetical scenario 假想

  broad generalization 广泛的概论

  historical facts 历史事实

  personal anecdotes 个人轶事

  scholarly analysis 学术分析

  defence 辩解

  concession 让步

  exception 例外

  allusion 暗示

  political allusion 政治暗示

  direct quotation 直接引用

  rhetorical questioning 设问,反问

  extended metaphor 扩展隐喻

  scientific data 科学数据

  literary allusion 文学暗示

  historical research 历史研究

  personal voice

  direct citation 直接引用

  paraphrase 释义

  paralel structure 平行结构/排比

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