定义：Metonymy is a figure in which the triter or speaker changes on word for another to which it is in some way related.
例句：Scepter and Crown (Kings and Emperors) must tumble down.
定义：This figure, akin to Metonymy gives to an object a name expressing something more or less than we intended, as when the name of part is applied to the whole or that of the whole to a part.
例句：He manages to earn his bread (the necessaries of life).
Transferred Epithet 移位修辞
定义：In this figure an epithet is transformed from a word to which it properly belongs to some other word closely connected with it.
例句：He tosses from side to side on his sleepless bed.
定义：An Oxymoron is the association of two words or phrases having conflicting meanings, as in ‘starve with feeding’, a splendid and ghastly triumph of ostentatious simplicity’ of the cruel mercy of the murderers’
例句：He is a busy idler.
定义：Antithesis is the figure in which one word or idea is set against another with the object of heightening the effect of what is said. ‘A dark night makes a flash of lightning more vivid’. This explains the power of verbal antithesis.
例句：Man propose, God disposes.
定义：An epigram is a brief saying in prose or verse, remarkable for brevity and point; it may involve a contradiction between the literal meaning of the words and the meaning intended. The Epigram is an apparent contradiction in language, which, by causing a temporary shock, meaning underneath.
例句：Every man wishes to live long, but one wishes to be old.
定义：A Pun is a play upon words. It means the use of a word in such a way that it is capable of bearing two or more different meanings, the object being to create humor, admiration or surprise.
例句：Life is like peeing into the snow in a dark winter night. You probably made a difference, but it's really hard to tell.
定义：A Climax is figure in which the sense rises by successive steps to what is more and more important.
例句：I came, I saw, I conquered.
定义：This is the converse of climax, for it means falling from a higher to a lower level of excitement.
The fall is usually abrupt and the effect often either intentionally or unintentionally humorous.
例句：I die, I faint, I fail.
定义：A paradox is a statement which appears to contradict itself. Though seemingly absurd and contrary to received opinion, it is perhaps really well-founded.
例句：There is no one so poor as a wealthy miser.
定义：In this figure the author’s meaning is not plainly stated. It is merely suggested or implied or hinted at, the intention usually being depreciatory.
例句：This author’s books will live at least a year.
定义：In this figure the attack is not veiled (hidden, concealed) in words as in Irony. The author says what he means, but in such a way as to imply ridicule, censure, disapproval or contempt.
例句：God made him and therefore let him pass for a man.
定义：Euphemism is a figure in which we speak of harsh and unpleasant things in a mild and pleasant manner.
例句：He was gathered to his fathers. (He died)
定义：Interrogation is the figure of affirming or denying the opposite by means of an unanswered question as in ‘Who dares to contradict me?’ Here the presumption is that no one dares to do so.
例句：If you poison us, shall we not die?
定义：This is common and very forcible figure of speech. It arrests attention at once. ‘It’s raining hard’ is a prosaic, literal statement: ‘How it rains!’ expresses the same thought, with an addition of startled surprise.
定义：This figure consists in saying a thing over again in other words without adding clearness or force; useless repetition.
例句：The modern college students of today. “Mother I am very well, i was never better.”
定义：Personification is a figure by which we attribute life and mind to inanimate things.
例句：Death lays his icy hands on kings.
定义：Apostrophe is a figure by which the poet addresses a person or a personified idea
例句：O Liberty! What crimes have been wrought in thy name? Milton! Thou shouldst be living at this hour.
Play upon Words 文字游戏
rhetorical repetition 修辞重复
例句：He lost his computer and his temper.
apply to emotion 抒情
figurative language 象征性语言
comparison & contrast
hypothetical scenario 假想
broad generalization 广泛的概论
historical facts 历史事实
personal anecdotes 个人轶事
scholarly analysis 学术分析
political allusion 政治暗示
direct quotation 直接引用
rhetorical questioning 设问，反问
extended metaphor 扩展隐喻
scientific data 科学数据
literary allusion 文学暗示
historical research 历史研究
direct citation 直接引用
paralel structure 平行结构/排比