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小作文分类总结话题语素(考试必背)

来源:新航道      浏览:166      发布日期:2016-10-10 09:55

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济南新航道   陈思

一:小作文的基本要求

在阅读文本前,希望先能和考生分享一下小作文的基本要求,希望广大考生在写小作文时带入这种感觉:小作文的描述并非直白而且机械性的去总结趋势上的变化过程,小作文意在考察学生们对于图表信息的总结,观察,和对比能力。

这也就是小作文下都会带有一句requirement的原因

 

SUMMARIZE THE INFORMATION by selecting and reporting MAIN FEATURES, and make COMPARISON where reverent.

这三个关键词也就表达出了在TASK1中,考生需要学会并需要表达出来的能力:

1. 总结信息Group Data

2. 主要趋势Different Stages

3. 着重比较Comparison

 

Tips:TASK1 是对于现象的总结与描述,而非真正趋势变化的描述。但请大家记得,在小作文的描述过程中不要出现主观上的推断。

 

大家请参考如下的考官评语:

文章摘自剑7 真题, 题目剑7 78页,参考文章P166

This is an answer written by a candidate who achieved a Band 6.5 score. Here is the examiner’s comment:

 

This answer clearly presents and illustrates the key points of the information1.总结信息). The writer groups the data effectively and draws clear comparisons1+3总结信息着重比较), although these could be more appropriately extended in the overview. Information is well organized1.总结信息) across the response and a range of linking devices is usedLR.

 

The opening paragraph, however, is inadequate paraphrase of given language in the task, and although there are some appropriate collocations in the response, overall the rage of vocabulary is rather limitedLR. Control is good, however, with few examples of error.

A variety of structure is used with some fluencyLR. There are occasional errors in punctuation and there are also some omissions and errors in grammarGRA, but these tend to be minor and do not reduce communication.

 

这段考官评语简洁明了,但是很清楚的诠释了写作中

TA Task Achievement

CC Coherence and Cohesion

LR  (Lexical Resources)

GRA (Grammar Range and Accuracy)

 

二:考生在TASK1中常遇到的几个问题

以动态图表为例:


1.应该从哪里着手进行图表的描述 TV Audiences 还是 Radio Audiences?

2.如何写出一个清晰流畅的进程?

3.如何分段进行描述?截至到什么地方为一段趋势的变化?

4.如何提升小作文的词汇量?

5.在写文章过程中,句式单一?带入数据方式单一?总是重复?

大家在写作的过程中,有时会忽略小作文的重要性,其实不然,对于想考高分的烤鸭们来说,TASK1 在整个写作的过程中起到非常重要性的作用。写作在打分的过程中,是单项分开打分 TA Task AchievementCC (Coherence and Cohesion) LR (Lexical Resources) GRA (Grammar Range and Accuracy) 每个单项是不存在半分的 所以每项分数的高低 会整体降低或提升文章的成绩。

 

大家在写文章的过程中 或许会觉得有些枯燥,发现上升下降比较的描述过程比较呆板或者单一,句式不够充分。大家在确保文章文章流畅清晰连贯的情况下,(TACC)也需要努力去丰富自己的句法结构以及表达。这篇文章为大家带来了两个种类的话题语素,为广大烤鸭提供句式结构,早日在TASK1中取得快速的进步。但是大家需要注意的是,在总结与使用的过程当中要注意准确性和流畅性,切记生搬硬套。

 

三:话题语素

本篇文章共有5TOPICS,为广大烤鸭们提供小作文的话题语素。

TOPIC1- 能源消耗类总结

TOPIC2- 交通工具类总结

TOPIC3- 人口数量类总结

TOPIC4- 环境气候类总结

TOPIC5- 消费支出类总结

 

这次主要与大家分享前两类的句式总结

TOPIC1- 能源消耗类总结

TOPIC2- 交通工具类总结

  

TOPIC1- 能源消耗类总结

注意,重点用法已用黄色及红色高光标出


 

1Renewable energy consumption increased by about 8% between 2008 and 2009, contributing about 8% of the Nation’s total energy demand, and 10% of total U.S. electricity generation in 2009.

: 2008年到2009年,可再生能源的消耗增加了约8% 2009年美国能源总需求的8%,总发电量的10%.

 

2) As of 2010, about 16% of total final energy consumption comes from renewable energies, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity.

: 2010年,大约16%的全球终端能源消耗来源于可再生能源,其中主要用来供暖的10%来源于传统生物能,3.4%来源于水力发电。

 

 

3) World production of bio-ethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach 33 billion liters, with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it to the levels of consumption in Brazil. Bio-diesel increased by 85% to 3.9 billion liters, making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.

: 2005年全球生物乙醇的产量为330亿公升,增幅为8%,其中大部分增长来自美国,由此该产量与巴西的消耗量相当。生物柴油产量增加到39亿公升,增幅为85%,是2005年增长最快的可再生能源。其中50%以上是德国生产的。

 

4) Canada uses 1,600 cubic meters of water per person per year. This is more than twice as much water as the average person from France, three times as much as the average German, almost four times as much as the average Swede and more than eight times as much as the average Denmark. Canada’s per capital water consumption is 65% above the OECD average.

译:加拿大每年人均耗水量为1600立方米,是法国的2倍多,德国的3倍多,瑞典的近4倍,丹麦的8倍多,同时也比经济合作与发展组织的人居耗水量多了65%.

 

倍数以及一半的的变形表达也可参照如下例句:

5) The new park covers 1400 surface acres, twice the size of the old park.新公园占据了1400英亩,是老公园的两倍。

 

6) In industrialized nations, however, industries consume more than half of the water available for human use. Belgium, for example, uses 80% of the water available for industry.

在工业化国家,工业用水占人类可用水量的一半以上。例如,比利时的工业用水占其总水量的80%.

 

7) Freshwater withdrawals have tripled over the past 50 years. Demand for freshwater is increasing by 64 billion cubic meters a year. 在过去的50年,淡水资源减少了2/3多。而对淡水资源的需求每年都会增加640亿立方米。

 

8) While world’s population has tripled in the 20th century, the use of renewable water resources has grown six-fold. Within the next fifty years, the world population will increase by another 40% to 50%. This population growth—coupled with industrialization and urbanization—will result in an increasing demand for water and will have serious consequences on the environment.

译:20世纪,世界人口增加了2倍,可再生水资源的使用则增加了6倍。 在接下来的50年,世界人口会在增加40%50% 人口的增长 再加上工业化和城市化,将导致水资源需求的再度增加,对环境也将造成严重的影响。

 

9The number of international passenger-kilometers traveled by French passengers in 2009 was, at 9,983 million passenger-kilometers, more than twice the level for Germany (4,162 million passenger-kilometers), which in turn recorded a figure that was more than double that for the United kingdom (1,641 million passenger-kilometers).

: 2009年法国乘客旅行的国际客运里程为99.83亿千米,是德国(41.62亿千米)的两倍多,而德国又是英国(16.41千米)的两倍多。

 

10 Worldwide, agriculture accounts for 70% of all water consumption, compared to 20% for industry and 10% for domestic use.

译:世界范围内,农业用水占用水总量的70% 而工业用水占20%,生活用水占10%.

  

TOPIC2 交通工具类


 

1 By far the dominant mode of transportation in New York City is rail. Only 6% of shopping trips in Manhattan’s Central Business District involve the use of a car.

译:到目前为止,纽约市最主要的交通方式还是铁路。在曼哈顿中心商业区只有6%的购物出行是使用汽车。

2 Ridership in the city increased 36% to 2.2 billion annual riders from 1995 to 2005, far outpacing population growth.

译:1995年到2005年,城市每年的公共交通工具运送的乘客数量增加到22亿,增幅为3.6%,远远超过人口的增长速度。

3 Around 48% of New Yorkers own cars, yet fewer than 30% use them to commute to work.译:约 48%的纽约人拥有汽车,但是不到30%的人开车上下班。

4 Travel by car, van or taxi is by far the most common means of transport, accounting for 85% of passenger mileage in Great Britain.

译:乘汽车,货车或出租车是目前为止最常见的交通方式,在英国客运里程中占到85%.

5In the first half of 2011, there were nearly 10.1 million new automotive vehicles nationwide, including 7.6 million new cars, higher than nearly 6.9 million new cars in the same period of 2010.

译:2011 年上半年,全国大约有1010万俩机动车,包括760万辆新车,远多于2010年通气的近690完辆新车.

6Between 2000 and 2008 there was a marked increase in the use of passenger cars among many of the Member States that joined the EU in 2004 or 2007, in particular, Bulgaria and Poland, while Hungary was an exception to this development.

: 2000年到2008年,许多于2004年或2007年假如欧盟的国家的轿车使用量都有了显著增长,尤其是保加利亚和波兰,但匈牙利是个例外。

 

作者简介:

 

 

  陈思,济南新航道雅思写作教师。上得了讲台走得了T台;讲的了雅思写得了长文。有颜有腿还有才,颜值担当备课王。

 

>>>本栏目文章皆由济南新航道老师整理撰稿,转载请注明出处

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